There Are Two Types Of Super-Precision Machining Ability
In the 1960s, high Super-Precision Machining Ability techniques were developed to meet the needs of cutting-edge technologies such as nuclear energy, large scale integrated circuits, laser and aerospace. The precision of Super-Precision Machining Ability is more than one order of magnitude higher than that of traditional Super-Precision Machining Ability. To the 20th century, 80 years, the processing of dimensional accuracy of up to 10 nm (1 × 10-8 m), surface roughness of 1 nm. Super-Precision Machining Ability requires special requirements for Super-Precision Machining Ability, precision measurement, precision servo systems, computer control, and other advanced technology, such as workpiece material, processing equipment, tools, measuring and environmental conditions. The workpiece material must be extremely fine and uniform, and properly treated to eliminate the internal residual stress, to ensure the height of the dimensional stability, to prevent deformation after processing. Processing equipment to have a very high precision movement, linear guide and spindle rotation accuracy to reach 0.1 micron level, micro-feed and positioning accuracy to reach 0.01 micron level. Strict environmental conditions, to maintain constant temperature, humidity and clean air, and take effective anti-vibration measures. The system error and random error of the machining system should be controlled at 0.1 micron or less. These conditions are obtained by a variety of advanced technologies such as precision application of precision machinery, precision measurement, precision servo systems and computer control.
Ultra precision cutting
Mainly ultra-precision turning, mirror grinding and grinding. In the ultra-precision lathe with a fine grinding of single crystal diamond turning tool for micro-turning, cutting thickness of only about 1 micron, commonly used in processing non-ferrous metal materials, spherical, aspheric and plane mirrors and other high-precision, high surface smooth Components. For example, a diameter of 800 mm for aspheric mirrors for machining nuclear fusion devices with a maximum accuracy of 0.1 μm and a surface roughness of Rz0.05 μm.
Ultra-precision special processing
Machining accuracy in nanometer, and even the final atomic units (atomic lattice distance of 0.1 to 0.2 nm) as the goal, the cutting method has been unable to adapt, the need for special processing methods, namely the application of chemical energy, electrochemical energy, heat or Electricity, etc., so that these energy beyond the atomic energy between the junction, so as to remove part of the surface of the workpiece adhesion, bonding or lattice deformation, in order to achieve the purpose of Super-Precision Machining Ability. Electrochemical polishing, ion sputtering and ion implantation, electron beam exposure, laser beam processing, metal deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy are among other types of processes. These methods are characterized by the fact that the amount of surface layer material removed or added can be finely controlled. But to obtain Super-Precision Machining Ability accuracy, still depends on the precision processing equipment and precise control system, and the use of ultra-precision mask for intermediates. For example, ultra-large scale integrated circuit is the use of electron beam on the mask of the photoresist (see photolithography) exposure, the photoresist atoms in the electronic impact directly under the polymerization (or decomposition), and then The polymerized or unpolymerized portion was dissolved with a developer to form a mask. Electron beam exposure plate need to use the table positioning accuracy of up to ± 0.01 micron Super-Precision Machining Ability equipment.